Thursday, December 19, 2013

Official Release of My New Book ‘Portrayal of Women in Media and Literature’

My new book ‘Portrayal of Women in Media and Literature’ which is published 3months back by Access, New Delhi is officially released today at the auspicious hands of our new Vice-Chancellor, Hon’ble Dr. Pandit Vidyasagar and in presence of Shri. Ashokrao Patil Ekambekar, Shri. Ramchandrarao Patil, Principal Dr.S.T.Patil in inaugural function of our student’s council. I worked on this book with Dr. Shivani Vashist, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, (J & K) and 
Dr. Pinaki Roy (W.B.)

Monday, November 18, 2013

Farewell, Dear Doris Lessing. Miss you forever...

On death of Nobel Prize-Winning Author Doris Lessing (1919-2013) who is died yesterday at her 94th.

Farewell, Dear Doris. Miss you forever...
Felt very sad when ur publisher Harper Collins reported officially yesterday in London of ur death that u r died in ur sleep last night.

U were celebrated author who published more than 50 books. U won the Nobel Prize in 2007 and became the eldest recipient at the age of 88. Before that, in 2005, U were shortlisted for the first Man Booker International Prize. I happened to read/edit something on ur books The Golden Notebook and The Grass is Singing. Ur work examines the spirit of Romanticism to expand human knowledge to encompass regions beyond the control of reason and the ego. In darkness, the beauty of stars and constellations will be admired all the more now as U r up there shining like a bright star. May ur soul rest in peace!

Saturday, October 26, 2013

In and Around Karnataka State Women's University, Bijapur. International Seminar on Dimensions of Indian Diasporic Literature in English

In and Around Karnataka State Women's University, Bijapur.
International Seminar on Dimensions of Indian Diasporic Literature in English Conducted by Department of Studies and  Research in English 25-26 Oct. 2013.

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

All the best my dear brother Professor Dr. Sanjay Nawale

 Dear Brother Professor Dr. Sanjay Nawale.
Congrats on your appointment and joining as Professor in Dept of Hindi, 
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad.
We know that you have the talent, sincerity and enthusiasm to make a new tomorrow.
This is just the beginning of the bright path that is filled with your hopes and dreams. 
You are destined for even more greater than this. Enjoy your new journey. All the best.

Wednesday, August 7, 2013

With Hon.ble Dr. Babasaheb Bandgar

Felt very happy, blessed and privileged to facilitate Hon.ble Dr. Babasaheb Bandgar, Former Vice-Chancellor, Solapur University, in his informal visit to my residence at Udgir on 6/8/2013 and to present him my recently published book on 'Twentieth Century British Literature' which is dedicated to him. I worked on this book with Dr. Zinia Mitra (Darjeeling) and Dr. Annie John (Solapur) and the book is published by internationally acclaimed GNOSIS, an imprint of Authorspress India, New Delhi. Thanks to all.

Sunday, July 21, 2013

New Book with Principal Dr. Dilip Garud & Prashant Mothe- Higher Education in India: Issues, Innovations, Challenges and Remedies

New Book with Principal Dr. Dilip Garud & Prashant Mothe- 
Higher Education in India:  Issues, Innovations, Challenges and Remedies

India’s higher education system is the third largest in the world after China and United States in terms of enrolment. However, in terms of the quality, Indian higher education has till to pass many tests to meet with global competence. This edited book takes up a comprehensive review of the Indian higher education system, assesses its needs, identifies gaps and provides perspectives for the future. It takes into account several measures and provides an integrated reform agenda for higher education in India

The studious observations and speculations of different scholars highlight the present scenario and development of higher education in India and identify the key challenges that India’s higher education sector has to face in order to rise in global scenario. Looking to the present scenario of the higher education in India, the editors- Dr. Dilip Garud, Dr. Arvind  Nawale and Mr. Prashant Mothe, through this anthology wish Higher education to receive a lot of attention by India government in coming days and recommend some points in order to make Indian higher education sector a major player in the global knowledge economy.

Book Enclave
F-11, SS Towers,
Dhamani Street, Chaura Rasta,
Jaipur, (Rajasthan)-302 003, India

Monday, July 15, 2013

In National Conference held at Mangalwedha 13-14th July 2013

In National Conference held at Mangalwedha during 13-14th July 2013. With my scholar friends along with book release photos

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

New Books...

New Books...

Portrayal of Women in Media and Literature
Pages xxiii+ 542, ISBN 978-93-82647-01-1
Worldwide Circulation through Authorspress Global Network. The book is also available online on flipkart, infibeam, alibris,  amazon, snapdeal,  ebay, Southasiabooks and so on

First Published  in 2013 by ACCESS, New Delhi
Though the 21st-century has often been referred to as the age of women-empowerment when every crusader against patriarchal norms is applauded, representation of female emancipation, be it in films and serials or in literature, often assume distorted forms.  The depiction of women in media and literature seems to be aimed more at satisfying the subconscious male voyeuristic desires than at how the females have become modernised enough to take on the world. Importantly, this is not a novel phenomenon. Since the time of The Ramayana or The Mahabharata, women have been constantly relegated to peripheries vis-à-vis the usual male assumption of centrality, with the powerful men looking down upon their female counterparts merely as submissive sexual objects. Women have been consistently stereotyped as unintelligent human beings who are expected to serve in kitchens, follow the directions of their male and female in-laws, act as caring mothers to children, and ensure, on the peril of unpopularity, that servants did their tasks ‘correctly’. Even in Europe, which seemed to have had been modernised by the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, women were not allowed proper education or encouraged to write. Only as late as in 19th-century did some sensitive intellectuals, starting with John Stuart Mill, and involving personalities like Frances Cobbe, Harriet Martineau, and Josephine Butler among others, began clamouring for equal rights for women.
20th-century critics like Kate Millett, Simone de Beauvoir, Elaine Showalter, and Judith Fetterley have, in various publications, cautioned their female readers about the ‘traditional male hypocrisies’ which seek to dismiss the importance of females even while clamouring for their developments. Fetterley, especially, speaks for the necessity of ‘resisting readers’ who would identify the specific areas in male-constructed literature which offer demeaning portrayal of women and conspire to keep them submissive. However, as far as casual re-readings of post-modern literature reveal or cursory glances at films and television serials notice, women are directly or unwillingly participating in their own commodification, and allowing themselves to be sexualised on screen or in print. Rather than becoming a century for women’s liberation, the 21st-centutry has become a period of gross female sexualisation. In such an age of artistic and aesthetic decadence, it has become necessary to identify the specific areas where women are being, on daily basis, distortedly depicted, patronised, or dominated. Even if such identifications and relevant publications would not normally stop violent attacks on young women, they would at least make maturing readers aware of the deplorable ground-realities for women in India and on international arena, and make them stake  and encouraging views of the female efforts for liberation.
Was it necessary to publish this compilation of essays on portrayal of women in media and literature? The answer is: yes. Numerous crimes against women, as social scientists have pointed out, are taking place on a daily-basis particularly because of ignorance and lack of compassion for femininity. The variety of issues explored in this critical anthology would make some epistemic contributions to the fields of feminism and pro-women-activism, with cautious approaches adopted towards the depreciations of females in different fields. If the role of humanities is to make individuals more humane, such a compilation is expected to further advance humaneness and humanity.  

In recent years, the Government of India and all the Indian states are taking stringent measures against female harassments and anti-women violence. Academic activism has also been making its contribution. In the field of written literature, the femininity-indicating ‘actress’ and ‘authoress’ have been diligently replaced with ‘actor’ and ‘author’, respectively. But, interestingly, while such academic ‘measures’ perceptively try to abolish the discriminating female-signs and signifiers, the males have not been motivated into becoming ‘authoresses’, ‘actresses’, or ‘poetesses’. The males have been traditionally granted superior places; even while indicating unisexuality, male signifiers have been adopted! If Spivak’s strategic essentialism is to be taken into account, abolishment of the ‘-esses’ might interpreted as offering scopes for re-examination. Nevertheless, this compilation of critical essays is expected to be referred to by teachers and students alike who want to further their studies and activism regarding female empowerment and dignities. 

Autobiographies, Boigraphies and Memoirs: Prestine Waves
Pages xxii + 473, ISBN 978-93-81030-48-6
Worldwide Circulation through Authorspress Global Network. The book is also available online on flipkart, infibeam, alibris,  amazon, snapdeal,  ebay, Southasiabooks and so on

First Published in 2013 by GNOSIS, New Delhi-110  016
About Book
Autobiographies, Biographies and Memoirs occupy an important place in Literature for various reasons. Authors used this genre to communicate their worldviews to people. Gandhi’s The Story of My Experiments with Truth is an excellent example. My Truth by Indira Gandhi is yet another example of communicating the message of an individual to a larger world. Jivansmriti (Reminiscences) of Rabindranath Tagore narrates his early years of life, while in Toward Freedom: the Autobiography of Jawaharlal Nehru, conveys Nehru’s own views  to his “own countrymen and women.” Nirad C. Chaudhuri’s The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian, published in 1951, stands apart as a great master-piece, combining personal life experiences with a strong motivated worldview (“the conditions in which an Indian grew to manhood in the early decades of this century”).
 Talking about non-Indian writers A Stolen Life by Jaycee Dugard is one such autobiography where everyone's heart goes out to this girl who was kidnapped and imprisoned at the tender age of 11. Another autobiography that took away the hearts of readers is Sliding into Home by Kendra Wilkinson; a former resident of the Playboy mansion and star of The Girls Next Door. She manages to tell a lot more about her life than most people would be willing to. War by Sebastian Junger takes us inside an Afghanistan war zone to learn what it is like to be in combat. Similarly the renowned Biography Jonathan Edwards by George Marsden where the author brings to life the great preacher and theologian Jonathan Edwards is praise worthy. Another truly portrayed biography that we came across is Love Queen of Malabar: Memories of Friendship with Kamala Das by Merrily Weisbord where she wanders into the restricted zones of Kamala Das’s life.
Jawaharlal Nehru writes in his autobiography Toward Freedom,  “… this account is wholly one-sided and, inevitably, egotistical; many important happenings have been completely ignored and many important persons, who shaped events, have hardly been mentioned. In a real survey of past events this would have been inexcusable, but a personal account can claim this indulgence.” Gandhi justified writing an autobiography with these words:
“But a God-fearing friend had his doubts, which he shared with me on my day of silence. 'What has set you on this adventure? He asked. 'Writing an autobiography is a practice peculiar to the West. I know of nobody in the East having written one, except amongst those who have come under Western influence. And what will you write? Supposing you reject tomorrow the things you hold as principles today, or supposing you revise in the future your plans of today, is it not likely that the men who shape their conduct on the authority of your word, spoken or written, may be misled. Don't you think it would be better not to write anything like an autobiography, at any rate just yet?”
Indira Gandhi’s work is a compilation of her writings in a manner that the book has an autobiographical format. Nehru wrote his autobiography in English. Gandhi and Tagore wrote their autobiographies first in their mother tongues (Gujarati and Bengali respectively) and then they get it translated or recreated their works into English. Nirad Chaudhuri wrote his celebrated work in English.
Autobiographies, Biographies and Memoirs may raise controversies of various types: political, social, familial, regional, religious, etc. A recent biography-like book on Muhammad Ali Jinnah by Jaswant Singh Jinnah: India-Partition-Independence raised a hue and cry among Jaswant Singh’s own party members.  Earlier in recent times, actor Om Puri’s biography Unusual Hero by his wife created strong and deep controversies. Such controversies arise out of revelations in public of private personal acts and thoughts that may involve others and thus hurt the feelings, careers and interests of people referred to. It looks like that the autobiographer or biographer never asks the permission of others to narrate the incidents which engross them! But due to such pristine waves of unfold truth, Autobiographies, Biographies and Memoirs became most popular forms of literature.
However, autobiographies and biographies have their own aspects difficult to master. Even the authors of these works are burdened with the responsibility of ensuring that the readers are with them and are comfortable with the journey they choose to undertake with the authors. The goal of this special volume Autobiographies, Biographies and Memoirs in English: Pristine Waves is to make a survey of some of the major autobiographies and biographies written in English. It is assumed that work should try to bring put some pristine waves of unfold truth, hidden fact or incident of the life of the person studied in present book.

We are hopeful that this critical anthology would prove to be a very valuable companion to different teachers, postgraduate and undergraduate students, and doctoral research scholars who are intent on acquainting themselves with different aspects of Autobiographies, Biographies and Memoirs in English.

Dynamics of Diasporic Identity in Commonwealth Literature
Pages xxi + 327, ISBN 978-81-7273-726-9
Worldwide Circulation through Authorspress Global Network

First Published in 2013 by, Authorspress, New Delhi-110  016
About Book
Diaspora studies, through years, have depicted an organic development maturing over years of cultural segregation to ultimate acculturation in the wake of globalisation. In its phase of inception, diasporic studies depicted certain general features: dispersal from original “centre” to the periphery of the foreign land; sense of alienation, retainment of community memory, a painful “rebirth” in an antagonistic society and hence the yearning to return back “home”. These varied and yet generalised concept have been highlighted in Diasporas in Modern Societies: Myths of Homeland and Return where William Safran speaks of the nostalgic yearning of the early immigrants and how “their ethnocommunical conciousness and solidarity are importantly defined by the existence of such a relationship” (84). However, such feelings of nostalgia were found only in the early immigrants but their children or the second generation immigrants are free of such “looking back” emotions. Fredrick Buell in his book National Culture and the New Global System calls these immigrants “Global Cosmopolitans” who have established a new identity in the foreign nation.
The etymological origin of Diaspora can be traced to ancient Greek where it meant scattering as a result of migration or geographical upheaval and was related to the dispersal of the Jews. In the post-biblical phase, the term came to be related to human scattering because of slave trading and transfer of labourers. Diasporic communities grew up in distant lands of Jamaica, Trinidad, West Indies, United States, Australia etc. and there they created a space for themselves where they could preserve their individual identities and their racial origin. Obviously, this endeavour to preserve identity in a distant land was far from easy and it resulted in concepts like self, cultural memory, rootlessness, linearity and continuity, alienation and belonging.
Though no country has really been able to escape the effects of migration or dislocation, yet in the post colonial scenario the questions and issues are being re-evaluated. One wonders whether dislocation has to be really traumatic and if the new entrant can not rally get assimilated with the new culture. History and memory are two separators but in the global scenario all concepts require to be re-visited. Multiculturalism is an attempted reality and it works at multiple levels. The word is in vogue and this has imparted different connotations to it and which is a definite reason for caution. It must be remembered that it is not a mere coexistence of multiple cultures or ethnicities – rather it works towards a separation which is essential for maintaining “difference” and working towards individual recognition. Its popularity is not in “coercive assimilation” but rather in the resonance of the term “culture” and a positive connotation.
Two other important terms which have come to be associated with the search for diasporic identity are “hybridity” and “third space”. Robert Young points out that the term “hybrid(ity)” was first used with respect to humans in 1813 and it implied “the crossing of people of different races” (6). Bhabha, later in the location of culture uses the term in a less palpable context of “mutual contamination of imaginary purity” and it led to the concept of the “third space” of the colonizer and the colonized that effects the hybridization of both parties. It is this “third space” which has become an important zone of interaction between the diasporic community and the original master class. This spatial turn has resulted in the intermingling of cultures, what Bhabha calls, “hibridity”, thereby producing “thirding as othering”. It causes “in-between-ness” which has been supported also by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Edward Said.  Bhabha challenges the hegemonic historiography in “The Third Space” and writes:
All forms of culture are continually in a process of hybridity. But for me the importance of hybridity is not to be able to trace two original moments from which the third emerges, rather hybridity to me is the ‘third space’ which enables other positions to emerge. This third space displaces the histories that constitute it, and sets up new structures of authority, new political initiatives, which are inadequately understood through received wisdom...the process of cultural hybridity gives rise to something different, something new and unrecognisable, a new area of negotiation of meaning and representation (Bhabha 211).
The present volume discusses these varied aspects of diasporic identity in varied avtars. The editors of the present critical anthology have taken an all-inclusive approach on diasporic identity in Commonwealth Literature. Their principal insistence is on acquainting teachers, researchers, and post- and undergraduate students with different dynamics of diasporic identity in Commonwealth Literature.

Emerging Issues in ELT
Pages xviii + 420, ISBN 978-93-81030-46-2
Worldwide Circulation through Authorspress Global Network. The book is also available online on flipkart, infibeam, alibris,  amazon, snapdeal,  ebay, Southasiabooks and so on
First Published in 2013 by GNOSIS, New Delhi
About Book
The growing popularity of English language instruction has led to more professionalism within the ranks of English teachers. Today’s classrooms reflect a wide range of individual student differences in experience, aptitude, motivation, interest, gender, race and ethnicity. Teacher must develop the knowledge and skills to teach diverse group of students with emerging trends. In addition to this, to keep place in an ever-changing society, teacher and students must be prepared to expand their teaching repertoires throughout their careers as educators. Teachers in the 21st century must be thoughtful, reflective practitioners prepared to teach and learn within a changing environment, including the social, economic, technological and professional contexts.
The world keeps changing with every rotation it makes round the sun. Just a decade ago, students were taught with pens, pencils, black boards and chalks. But today, all that have become history which no one wishes to remember. Light pens and boards, PDF notes, CD ROMs have replaced all those. And even as you are reading this, the world is advancing rapidly with respect to ICT technology as even computers and laptops are gradually leaving the scene for Net-books, Net-Pads, Tablet PCs, i-Pods and magic handsets.
There is need to study these new trends with its all critical fairness.  So this anthology aims to help teachers by providing detail study of modern techniques to teach English effectively. This anthology strives to provide clear, comprehensive, and objective advice to anyone interested in teaching English. It presents empirical studies on the various factors that influence English language learning and teaching. Technology has changed the way we access information and the way we teach and learn. New technologies have contributed to the proliferation of information and resources. Such technologies may include internet, audio-visual aids, MALL, CALL, multimedia, distance learning and digital technologies that help to enrich ELT.

Nevertheless, this compilation of critical essays is expected to be referred to by teachers and students alike who want to further their studies and activism regarding ICT enabled English Language Teaching and Learning. We are thrilled and honoured in editing present this volume to the vast local and global readership. We sincerely hope that this effort will be appreciated.

Role of ICT in English Language Teaching and Learning
Pages xvii + 335, ISBN 978-93-82647-00-3

Worldwide Circulation through Authorspress Global Network. The book is also available online on flipkart, infibeam, alibris,  amazon, snapdeal,  ebay, Southasiabooks and so on

First Published  in 2013 by ACCESS, New Delhi
English is a West Germanic language linked to Dutch, Frisian and German with a significant amount of terminology from French, Latin, Greek and few others. Historically, English language had so modest foundation that at first it would hardly worth the honor of being the literature language of even a renowned Englishman. Shakespeare wrote for a speech community of about six million peoples, that it was not thought to be of much account by the rest of Europe, and that it was entirely unknown to the rest of the world. John Locke, the celebrated English philosopher once said that ‘English was the language of the illiterate vulgar’. But today the situation has been exclusively changed and the English language dominated over almost all rest languages. Today, English is truly an official or co-official language of over 45 countries and is the mostly preferable medium of international communication. We see wide-ranging use of English in the field of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism all over the world.
English, today, has the widest circulation, spoken and used as official language by men and women round the world, especially in the countries which were British colonies. The earlier teaching of English was characterized largely by a type of instruction which is a type of a lecture method in teaching language or literature. But, presently, universalisation of education technology is a matter of great prosperity for the teaching dogma. Particularly Information Technology achieves a wide possible reach for the students. We see a sea change in the teaching of English language in the schools and colleges by the introduction of ICT equipments. The use of ICT can succeed in achieving language proficiency and will fosters an all-round development of the mind of students. 
The present anthology Role of ICT in English Language Teaching and Learning: Observations and Ruminations is our humble attempt to bring different scholarly views, opinions and investigations under one umbrella in form of this book. We requested many scholars of India and aboard to ruminate and write on this topic and we are overwhelmed by their response. 

The overall aim of this anthology is to highlight difference facets of the application of ICT in teaching English language and investigate and explore various  experimentation and innovation in this area in order to find out the goals of ICT enabled teaching for creating environmental consciousness and related behavioural practices among students and we are sure that we succeed in bringing together all angled deliberations,  observations and ruminations on role of ICT in English Language teaching and learning. Nevertheless, this compilation of critical essays is expected to be referred to by teachers and students alike who want to further their studies and activism regarding ICT enabled English Language Teaching and Learning. We are thrilled and honoured in editing this volume to the vast local and global readership.

                                   Twentieth Century British Literature

Twentieth century British literature marks the advent of new ways of looking at the world with comprehending, interacting and reconstructing literary sensibility.  Modernistic point of view along with elements like experimentation and individualism were introduced in it.  Focus on pluralism, quest for the self, lack of faith, fragmentation, alienation and much more found its reconstructed ways into its gamut.
            It is also called as modern literature and is reflective of the political upheavals, social unrest, and domestic crisis in addition to racial discrimination, political protests, the Gay Rights movement, the Feminist movement and so on. Significant contribution has been made in the field of novel, drama and poetry.  A lot of scope is given to man’s psychological problems and the concept of consciousness in relation to time. The approach that the modern literature adopts is realistic as opposed to the idealistic.  Almost everything from within the human nature is embraced within its vast confines. There is also a faithful rendering of the modern society devoid of common values and virtues, and gripped by elements of disappointment, dejection, depression, disillusionment, disease and death. The writers of this period revolted against the existing order and reacted against existing pretentions.  They opted for a more intense, more democratic and pluralistic mode of expression.
This anthology contains such approaches and critical investigation of renowned Twentieth century British literary texts through multiple aspects.

We are sure that these scholarly articles will definitely provide a deeper insight and help readers and researchers voyage into the realms of the 20th century British literature with its different facets. Research scholars who wish to undertake research in the same can truly be benefited.

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

‘Alumni Meet’, held at our Alma Mater Dayanand Arts College, Latur on 25/05/2013

Our ‘Alumni Meet’, held at our Alma Mater Dayanand Arts College, Latur on 25/05/2013, made me  nostalgic. The days we had spent together in the campus were recollected. The meet was a blend of meeting old batch-mates, recollecting memories and enjoying speeches and cultural treat followed by dinner. All the batches of alumni have been invited to share/mark their journey on occasion of Golden Jubilee Celebration of our Alma Mater to be held on 1 June 2013 in special presence of His Highness the President of India Shree. Pranab Mukherjee. There were about 500 alumni who made this meet a huge success. A huge chunk of them, of course, were from M.A. (English, Marathi, Hindi and Pub.Adm.) batches. Felt very happy to meet and share with my friends and classmates Dr. Anand Kulkarni, (BoS member, Pune University), Dr Dhananjay Deolalkar, (Elphinstone College, Mumbai), Principal Dr. Anita Mudkanna (Andur), Dr. Chaya dapake (Osmanabad), Urmila Dharashive, Dr. Pandurang Shitole, Dr. Balasaheb Bhosale (Latur),. Also met to Suryakant Kapase, Lahu Shewale, Dr. Sunil Salunke, Dr. Shahuraj Mule, Dr. Srikant Andhare (Dy Registrar), Dr. Pradeep Suryawanshi and other friends and batch mates. I wish a grand success to Golden Jubilee Celebration of my Alma Mater.

Saturday, March 23, 2013

Release of My Books

Official Release of My Books
 Held in Inaugural Function of Jointly Organized Two National Conferences on Agro Tourism and Naxalism In Shivaji Mahavidyalaya Udgir on 23/03/2013

Published by Authors Press, Gnosis and Access, New Delhi
And officially released at the auspicious hands of
Hon’ble Vijaysinha Mohite Patil
(Ex Deputy Chief Minister, Maharashtra State),
Hon’ble Ashokrao Patil Ekambekar
Hon’ble Adv.C.P. Patil 
Hon’ble R.A.Pawar
Hon’ble Vikram Kale
Hon’ble Babasaheb Patil
Hon’ble Principal Dr.S.T. Patil
and others
At our Shivaji Mahavidyalaya, Udgir on 23/03/2013

Tuesday, January 1, 2013


Pages xix + 326
ISBN 9788172737061
The politics of gender which determines everything, including language and literature and the recent trends in feminist criticism has moved towards gender studies. Elizabeth Abel argues, “Sexuality and textuality both depend on difference”  and realizing the fact that the entire consequence of female oppression is caused by female “difference” these critics have decided to move beyond “difference” itself.  So now the politics of gender identity has come into the scenario, replacing the entirely female perspective and it serves as an umbrella term providing coverage to other areas too. Now male critics who desire to pursue feminist criticism and even the “Queer Study” group comes under this broader concept.

Julia Kristeva has provided an adequate analysis of how feminism has progressed through stages to finally reach the fluidity of gender identity. She states that feminism began with liberalism when women demanded equality; then came the radical feminists who rejected patriarchy and called for separatist matriarchy and finally they rejected both concepts and was asking for “gender identity”. Thus, feminism starting in true sense with Beauvoir’s The Second Sex, proceeded through varied phases to reach the phase of Judith Butler (Gender Trouble, 1990).

The Present book desires to address the politics of gender identity from the authentically Indian perspective, and that too in the arena of English theatre.  Indian drama and theatre has always exhibited a close symbiotic relation between genre and gender though literary feminism was quite late in evolving. The reason obviously was that theatre was a more public arena and hence a restricted medium for the females. The males of course, took up the cudgel on behalf of the females, and we have early playwrights like Krishna Mohan Banerji (The Persecuted), Michael Madhusudhan Dutt (Ratnavali, Sermistha, Is This Called Civilization?) who presented women as iconic images of perfection and subjugation. They were followed by Tagore and Sri Aurobindo who in the truest sense propagated the cause of women. Bharati Sarabhai and Swarnakumari Devi were the earliest of female dramatists though their voices remained muffled.

But female centred issues began to occupy the stage with the development of the IPTA (Indian Peoples Theatre Movement) which became operative since 1943 and it preceded an era of theatre festivals and workshops committed to the cause of women. Few examples are Yavintika, a women’s theatre festival organized by a Hyderabad based group, “Voicing Silence”, Gendered Theatre by M.S. Research Foundation,  Akka, the National Women’s theatre festival held in Mysore and so on. All this interest focussed upon the feminist cause resulted in a plethora of plays being written with women at the centre. Vijay Tendulkar and Mahesh Dattani are two great names in this perspective. They wrote and are still writing plays which expose the hypocrisy and mistreatment meted out to the female population through generations.
Female directors, once a rarity, now occupied the forefront and names like Ipsita Chandra, Chama Ahuja, Usha Ganguli, Sheila Bhatia, B. Jayashree, Arundhuti Raje, Nadira Babbar, Anuradha Kapur, Amal Allana became household names. They were supplied with regular plays by another female brigade comprising of names like Polie Sengupta, Dina Mehta, tripurari Sharma, Uma Parameswaran, Manjula Padmanabhan, Zahida Zaidi etc. Thus Indian Theatre and Literary Feminism both became the demand of the hour and it all propagated the “politics of gender identity”.

The essays in this book address these multiple aspects of gender identity and feminism and open up doors for varied speculations. The dramatists considered are from Kalidasa to Dattani and provide as broad a spectrum as possible.

True to the process, the pattern of evolution from ancient times to the post-modern period is studied in depth and it proves Indian English thetre to be a powerful aspect of literary feminism. The politics of gender and identity is the mantra of modern India and its authenticity is the gospel of this book.

It is our firm and ardent belief that the readers of this book will enjoy and benefit from these essays, and the book itself will prove to be a substantial contribution to the study of politics of gender, identity and authenticity of feminism and Indian theatre in English.  

Pages xxiv + 390

(2013) ISBN 978-81-7273-705-4 
Literature, as Jean-Paul Sartre writes in his famous essay “What is Literature?” (1949), is a phenomenon that is extremely difficult to define, and he cautions the critics neither to read quickly nor pass judgements on any publication before they have first had understood the concept of ‘literature’. In simple terms, however, the English word ‘literature’, derived from the Latin ‘litterae’ denoting ‘letter’, can be understood to indicate ‘the art of written work’, and is often not confined to published sources. The four major classifications of literature are poetry, prose, fiction, and non-fiction.
This critical anthology has been titled World English Literature: Bridging Oneness. The scopes of the entire title are numerous, and hence deserve a very brief clarification. The conglomeration of three words ‘World’, ‘English’, and ‘Literature’ may result in a term that is quite complex for suitable elucidation. After the Western imperialistic ventures against the African, Asian, and South American countries especially between the 16th and 19th centuries A.D., the connotations of the apparently-simple word ‘world’ have increased multifariously. Following the 1952 classifications by Alfred Sauvy, numerous nations are presently being confronted with four ‘world’ divisions:  the ‘first world’ – a term of privilege indicating the capitalistic European and North American nations; the ‘second world’, indicating the communist and socialist including Russia and some nations of South America; the ‘third world’ usually used derisively to indicate the economically-underprivileged and apparently-unaligned Asian and African nations almost all of which are former colonies of European powers; and, the ‘fourth world’, which, according to George Manuel, should be effectively used to denote comparatively unexplored nations of indigenous people. Therefore, the signifier ‘World English’, even in the second half of the 20th century, might have produced multiple signified – ‘collections of English publications from the first world’, ‘leftist English writings by authors of the so-called second world’, ‘postcolonial writings by litterateurs of the third world’, or ‘the foruth-world writings’. The subtitle ‘Bridging Oneness’ may come as a relief for the perplexed readers and critics: it suggests that the principal aim of the present anthology is to attempt the establishment of a literary union between the writings from these different ‘worlds’.
With the rapid proliferation in the socio-cultural and economic powers of principally Asian nations – especially those of China and India – in the last two decades of the 20th and first decade of 21st centuries A.D., implication of the term ‘world’ has undergone a change once again. Presently, there is no longer any perceptible polarisation. Not only have the former colonising nations like England, France, Belgium, Portugal, and Spain, have become economically weaker, their military strength, and hence the strength to alter histories of nations, have dwindled to a considerable level. The communist nations have ceased to be a major alternative bloc. Countries with indigenous people – especially Australia and Peru – have been steadily advancing efficient litterateurs, some of whom have received several international awards. The People’s Liberation Army of China is now the world’s largest military force, while the Indian Army is presently the world’s largest standing volunteer army. The demarcations between the first, second, third, and fourth worlds have been demolished. So have been the segregations in their respective literatures, and hence the necessity of ‘bridging’ respective literatures from these countries.
In the 21st century, the deciders of world fate even in early 20th century, especially England and France, have identifiably lost their power to influence global culture. On the other hand, numerous Third World inhabitants – especially Indians – have successfully permeated the Western segregatory socio-cultural curtains, compelling the English Office for National Statistics to predict in October 2005 that by A.D. 2031, England is scheduled to become a cultural colony of India. Interestingly, and paradoxically, in such changed circumstances, the term ‘world’ has re-begun to indicate the multicultural union of nations all throughout the globe, and ‘World English Literature’ now indicates those publications and literary works that are popular in both the West and the East – the Euro-American and the Afro-Asian nations. ‘English’, in the middle of the title, may simply be interpreted as a medium to ensure that the published literary works reached as many readers as possible.
It may also be asked here that why English is still relevant as a literary language, and why this critical anthology should deal with ‘world literature’ written only in ‘English’. The language of mainly the inhabitants of imperialist Britain, English became the most popular language of the world – though not with the largest number of speakers – by 1922 when the British Empire, as Angus Maddison and Niall Ferguson note, was spread approximately over thirty-three and a half million square kilometres – a quarter of earth’s total land area – and dominated around four hundred and fifty eight million people, one-fifth of world’s total population in the decade of the 1920s. Even in the early-21st century, English, in its different forms and intonations, is spoken by approximately two billion people worldwide. In India, from where the present critical anthology is being published, approximately one hundred and thirty million people speak English. There are different official languages of India, but the most infallible medium for communication between people of different states is undeniably English. Throughout the world, English is spoken in one hundred and twenty six countries. As briefly mentioned earlier, English is among the ‘safer’ language options for attracting wide readership, and even in the 21st century, English is one of the more preferred languages for literary exercises.
The English imperial domination of India for over three hundred years had galvanised its populace to learn, speak, and use English abundantly. In the 19th century, especially, the English colonisers had began to train Indians in English so that they could be deputed to draft or complete imperialism-related administrative paper-works, leading to the proliferation of the usage of the diminutive ‘writers’: the English-educated and British-collaborating Indian clerks. However, with such socio-political and intellectual movements like the Bengal Renaissance, the First Indian War of Independence, and armed anti-imperial struggles especially in Bengal, Maharastra, and Punjab, these very English-educated Indians became potential sources of threat to English imperialists. It was also during this period that the transformation of the English language from a colonisers’ tongue to a medium of effective communication across the linguistically-diverse Indian regions began. Nationalists could register their anti-English sentiments in the imperial tongue so that the inhabitants of Kerala or Andhra Pradesh, for example, could effectively understand what an anti-imperial intellectual from Maharastra or Bengal was trying to protest. Numerous regional works, some of them anti-imperialist and most of them critiques of the English rule, came to be translated into English and strengthened the Indians’ opinion against their colonisers. Even efficient and popular literary works from around the world – especially Germany, Russia, and France – were translated, and the Indian commoners could understand the anti-domination sentiments of the 18th-century enlightened Germans, anti-Tsarist Russians, or the indignant third-estate-communities of France. These entire intellectual strengthening of opinion would culminate in the Indian independence of 1947. Even after Independence, Indians, deeply read in famous literary works of different countries of the world in original or translated forms, have continued to contribute quality literature in English, and terms like ‘Indian Writing in English’, ‘Indo-Anglian Literature’ or ‘Indian English Writings’ suggest an alternative form of the usage of the English language where the so-called ‘pure’ or ‘traditional’ English words are replaced by different Indian phrases or terms, especially from Hindi, Bengali, and Tamil. In a fast-changing cultural and intellectual scenario in India, one can only comprehend the importance, relevance, and necessity of studying world literatures in English.
The editors of the present critical anthology have taken an all-inclusive approach – at achieving ‘oneness’ – to ‘world literature in English’ – written in or translated into the former imperial tongue. Their principal insistence is on acquainting teachers, researchers, and post- and undergraduate students with different aspects of literary works written in English in its different ‘regional’ forms as well as in the ‘traditional’, or, if we are allowed to use the term ‘original’ avatar. This anthology contains critical approaches to works by writers from as diversified nations as England (Edward Morgan Forster, David Herbert Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, Leopold Hamilton Myers, Graham Greene, and William Golding) – for no critical anthology of English writings would be successfully completed without incorporation of literary works by the inventors and popularisers of the language itself, Ireland (George Bernard Shaw), India (Mulk Raj Anand, Kamala Markandaya, Mohan Rakesh, Udupi Rajagopalacharya Ananthamurthy, Jayanti M. Dalal, Anita Desai, Arun Joshi, Chitrita Banerji, Rohinton Mistry, Amitav Ghosh, Sharankumar Limbale, and Kiran Desai), Australia (Jack Davis), Nigeria (Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe and Akinwande Oluwole Soyinka), the United States of America (Arthur Miller, Edward Franklin Albee III, Philip Roth, and Kenneth Elton Kesey), Canada (Margaret Atwood), Kenya (Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o), and South Africa (Nadine Gordimer), among others. As far as the Indian writers included in this anthology are concerned, Banerji, Mistry, Ghosh, and Kiran Desai – presently the permanent residents respectively of the U.S.A., Canada, the U.S.A., and the U.S.A. – can no longer be called ‘Indian writers’ in strictest sense of the term. They have become world-citizens – endeared to the reading public by both their artistic excellence and description of poignant reality. However, all these writers – with the exception of those belonging to the United States of America (itself an English colony until the 1780s) – are symbolically united by their belonging to countries collectively known as the ‘Commonwealth of Nations’. And, in a sense, World Literature in English: Bridging Oneness is a collection of critical approaches to different superior specimens of American and Commonwealth writings.

The term ‘Commonwealth of Nations’ has an imperialistic connotation: it indicates a congregation of England and its former colonies. However, in the postcolonial literary milieu of the 21st century, the phrase itself has become an anti-imperialistic term: it indicates the common strength of the erstwhile colonised-nations which have congregated themselves to posit socio-economic and artistic challenges against their former imperial centre – England – which finds itself surrounded by its rapidly-developing former colonies. The Commonwealth is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four countries, and is a forum for a number of non-governmental organisations, which strengthen the shared culture of the Commonwealth that extends through common sports, literary heritage, and political and legal practices. Due to this, Commonwealth countries are not considered to be ‘foreign’ to one another, and neither are their litterateurs who are bound together by common colonial, social, educational, and cultural experiences. It is therefore possible that several common aspects might be traced in publications, for example, by Forster, Achebe, Markandaya, Atwood, and Thiong’o. Such possibilities of commonality weave together the diverse critical essays included in the present anthology.